Language is a means to give or exchange information; news, idea or opinions, through language people learn from one another the things they want to know. Imagine if human beings could not communicate with one another. If a person cannot communicate, he will not talk to other people, and no other people will talk to him anything. So it would be impossible for him to learn anything.
Life is communication. It shows that human usually indicate with communication or commonly we called as language. Language is the most important things in all aspects of life, through language the people can express their ideas, share to others and to get information from others. Language can be expressed whether in oral and written form. However both of the kind of languages have the different aspects. Through oral communication or speaking , the people will directly understand but in written form, it will be hard to measure whether the people read it soundly or silently.
English and Arabic are language that be learned in Indonesia. English a compulsory subject in Indonesia that must be learned by the Indonesian students from the Junior high school up to University. Arabic language is a subject in some school or university, especially at moeslem school or university.
English and Arabic as a foreign language will arise some difficulties which are faced by Indonesian people / students because in learning a new language will arise some difficulties which are faced by Indonesian people/students because in learning a new language the students tend to transfer their native language habit to the new language.
According to the statement above, the writer tries to present a comparative study of the two languages, English and Arabic Especially on the adverb to avoid mistransformation which is made by the Indonesian students.
B. Problem Statement
The general teaching-learning process of English in the classroom, the teacher rare relates the materials with the native language of the students, in this case, Arabic language, as comparison. Whereas the teacher can relate the materials of English teaching with the Arabic language. By seeing this fact, the writer tries to arise some problems, those are:
1. How many kinds of the English and Arabic adverbs?
2. What are the rules of the process of the English and Arabic adverbs formation?
3. Are the rules of the process the same or not?
4. Where is the position of The English and Arabic adverb in sentences?
C. Object of The Research
1. To know some kinds of the English and Arabic adverbs.
2. To know the process of the English and Arabic adverbs formation.
3. To know the rules of the process of the English and Arabic adverb formation.
4. To know the position of the English and Arabic adverb in sentences.
D. Scope of The Research
Because of the limited time, energy, facilities, knowledge and opportunity, the writer wants to compare between English and Arabic adverb in the kinds, formation, and their position in the sentences.
In this chapter the writer will discuss the problems that are related to the title “A comparative study between English and Indonesian Adverbs”. From that title the writer discusses the problem in detail. So the writer needs many kinds of theories concepts and Ideas of experts. In order to make this study clearly, the writer tries to give definition as follows:
a. ENGLISH AND ARABIC LANGUAGE
1. “Language is an arbitrary system of articulated sound made use of by group of human as a means of carrying on the affairs of their society. (W. Nelson, Francies, 1958” 13).
2. Another features of human language is that it is productive or creative. This refers to the ability of the native speaker to understand produce any member of sentences. (Which have never been heard before) in their mother tongue, as Gorys Keraf Stated:
“Bahasa adalah alat komunikasi antar anggota masyarakat, berupa lambing bunyi suara yang dikeluarkan oleh alat ucap manusia.” (Gorys Keraf Ende, Flores, 1969: 16).
b. COMPARATIVE STUDY
Comparative means comparison or comparing, measuring, by comparing.
Study devotion of time and thought to get knowledge, examining carefully.
1. “Comparative study is a comparison of the structures or the languages to determine the points where they differ. These differences are the chief source in learning a second language.” (Louse’s book foundations as quoted by Adib Darmawan).
2. “Ilmu bahasa comparatif memperbandingkan system bahasa yang lain.”(M. Ramlan, Yogyakarta, 1965: 2).
3. “Analysis is separations in to parts possibly with comment and judgment.” (Hornby. 1974: 29) Oxford University press.
c. DEFINITION OF MORPHEME AND WORD
George Yule defines that:
“Morpheme is a minimal unit of meaning or grammatical function.” (1985: 60).
Let’s clarify this definition with some examples:
We would say that the word “REOPENED” in the sentence “The police reopened the investigation “ consists of 3 morphemes. One minimal unit of meaning is “Open” another minimal unit of meaning is “RE” (means again) and a minimal unit of grammatical function is: “ed” (indicating past tense). The word “patiently” consists of two morphemes. One minimal unit of meaning is “patient”, another minimal unit of grammatical function is “ly”(adverb of manner). Probably between English and Indonesian are similar in term of morpheme.
M. Ramlan defines it in his book:
“ Morfem ialah satuan gramatik yang paling kecil satuan gramatik yang tidak mempunyai satuan lain sebagai unsurnya.” (Yogya, 1965: 28).
Dr. Gorys Keraf defines it in his book “Tata bahasa Indonesia as follows:
“Morfem adalah kesatuan yang ikut serta dalam pembentukan kata dan dapat dibedakan artinya.“
For example, the word “seenaknya” is composed of two units. The first is “se-nya” as afiks, and the second is “enak” as a stem (adjective).
2. MORPHEME TYPES
From these examples above, we can make abroad distinction between two types of morphemes. These are: Free morpheme, that is morpheme which can stand by it self as a single word. Example: Open, patient, and enak. In English this typed can be stated as “base”/”stem”. There are also bound morphemes that are those which cannot normally stand alone, but which are typically attached to another form. Examples: se-, ly, se-nya, a-, -ive. The set of affixes which fall in to the bound category can also be divided into two types.
The first is derivational morphemes. These are used to makes new words in the language and are of ten used to make new words of different grammatical category from the stem. Those, the addition of derivational suffixes “-ly” change the adjective to adverb ”patiently.”
The second, set of bound morpheme contains what are called inflectional morphemes. These are not to produce new words in the English language, but rather to indicate aspects of grammatical function as words.
Example: “ed” to make “reopen” into the past tense form: “reopened.”
Learning a language is to convey ideas whether it is oral or written. When the people produce utterances to convoy ideas, of course the use sentences which contain many words as one of the most illusive of the linguistic unit of the language. Word, according to the Nelson Frencies (1958: 204) means a thing when we are talking about written language and another when we are talking about speech. Even though there is a considerable over lapping between the two, they are not identical. It has known in some languages that written language (the first definition of word) is derived from spoken; while it is merely an arbitrary sets of symbols used in recording an approximation of what is said. In other word it is called that written English is identical with people write while oral language is identical with face-to-face part of communication.
4. PART OF SPEECH
In this sub-chapter, the writer does not discuss the part of speech in detail explanation.
He just probably describes adverbs in details, because adverb is the target discussion in this study.
Talking about part of speech between English and Indonesian language have a little differences. The writer deals with the topic clarified as follows:
4.1. English part of speech
The grammarians classify for traditional names of part of speech. These are verbs, noun and adjective. The four types of them have their own function and characteristics. It is described as follows:
According to the Nelson Francis (1958) that there are five criteria in recognizing verb:
188.8.131.52. Verbs are class of lexical words marked by their use of four inflections, (-s), (-ed), (-ing); by their appearance in verb-phrases with certain auxiliaries such as can, must, is, has, please about/to by a small group of derivational affixes, such as (en-) and (-ate); by certain position relative to clearly marked noun; and usually by the superfix’.
184.108.40.206. Most auxiliary may build complex combination with other auxiliaries, making possible a very number repertory of verb-phrases.
220.127.116.11. Auxiliaries may seem as function verbs.
18.104.22.168. The verbs do in its various inflectional and phrasal form may seem a change for an ordinary verb which has appeared in the immediate linguistics contexts. “Do” is the only verb-substitute.
22.214.171.124. Separable verbs, made up of a full verb followed an adverb like form, may seem with their two parts together or separated by intervening words.
In dealing with Betty S. Azar state that adjective is describing noun, describe means change a little or means modify noun. It makes noun different from others if added or modified or preceded by adjective. In the line with that, Nelson Francis (1958) defines:
“Adjective are a class of lexical words identified by their ability to fill the position between noun-determiner and noun and the position after a linking verb and the qualifier such as very, rather and quite.”(Francis: 280).
Besides, adjective actually falls into one of two groups: base adjective and derived adjective. Base adjective is not formation, but it is usually happened to degrees of comparison and mostly and mostly consists of one syllable, though some have to even three. It usually forms its comparative and superlative degrees by means of the inflectional suffixes (-er) and (-est). While, derived adjective are created from bound stems, and verbs by means of quite a large group of derivational suffixes, such as (-ous), (-able), and in comparative and superlative by means of the qualifier (more) and (most).
4.1.3. ADVERB (see sub-chapter; Adverb as a part of speech)
Noun is a class of lexical words identified by their determiners to fill the positions according to their function as subject of verbs, or complements of the verb be, become, seem, or objects of verbs, object of prepositions.
Noun determiners are: pronoun (the, an, a, my, your, etc). Nouns can be formed by adding derivational suffixes to:
i. Verbs (-age), (-ance), (-er), (-ment)
ii. Adjectives: (-ce), (-cy),(-ness), (-ity)
iii. Other nouns: (-er), (-cy), (-ian), (-ism),(-ist), (-ship), (-ster)
iv. Bound stems (-er), (-ism), (-ist)
5. ARABIC LANGUAGE
Arabic (العربية alʻarabīyah [alʕaraˈbijja] ( or عربي/عربى ʻarabī [ˈʕarabiː] is a name applied to the descendants of theClassical Arabic language of the 6th century AD. This includes both the literary language and varieties of Arabic spoken in a wide arc of territory stretching across the Middle East and North Africa.
The literary language is called Modern Standard Arabic or Literary Arabic. It is currently the only official form of Arabic, used in most written documents as well as in formal spoken occasions, such as lectures and news broadcasts. However, this varies from one country to the other. In 1912, Moroccan Arabic was official in Morocco for some time, before Morocco joined the Arab League.
Arabic languages are Central Semitic languages, most closely related to Hebrew, Aramaic, Ugaritic and Phoenician. The standardized written Arabic is distinct from and more conservative than all of the spoken varieties, and the two exist in a state known as diglossia, used side-by-side for different societal functions.
As in other Semitic languages, Arabic has a complex and unusual morphology (i.e. method of constructing words from a basic root). Arabic has a nonconcatenative "root-and-pattern" morphology: A root consists of a set of bare consonants (usually three), which are fitted into a discontinuous pattern to form words. For example, the word for "I wrote" is constructed by combining the root k-t-b "write" with the pattern -a-a-tu "I X'd" to form katabtu "I wrote". Other verbs meaning "I X'd" will typically have the same pattern but with different consonants, e.g. qaraʾtu "I read", ʾakaltu "I ate", ðahabtu "I went", although other patterns are possible (e.g. šaribtu "I drank", qultu "I said", takallamtu "I spoke", where the subpattern used to signal the past tense may change but the suffix -tu is always used).
Learning Arabic language is always related to the grammar of Arabic. It is also has grammar in writing like anothers language in the world, it is make us easily to learn element of words in making good sentences.
In grammar of Arabic, word is called / Al- Kalimatu / . According to Nikman (no year : 17) word in Arabic divided into three parts :
/Tanqasimu a l- kalimatu al- ‘arabiyatu salasata aqsamin : ismun – fi’lun – harfu/
‘Word in arabic divided into three parts : ismun ‘nominal’, fil’un ‘verb’, and harfun ‘
In Arabic, ism ‘nomina’ has many position, it can be “ fa’il” as a subject, “maf’ul” as object, and also as adverb. Ism “noun” also can be as adver that refers to condition, reason, place and time where a person doing something.
Arabic language is like the others language, it has adverb to show adverb of time and place,for example that, there, morning, noon, over, afternoon, night, etc.. This word is called as “ Dzaraf” (ظَرْفٌ) which has function likes another language in generally. It has same function but it has different role in usage.
There are some adverb of time in Arabic that we have to know when we use Arabic. For example :
1. Now = الْآَن (al-ān)
2. Tomorrow = غَـــــــــدًا (ghadan)
3. Yesterday = أَمْــــــــــــس (ams)
4. Day after tomorrow = بعــــــــد غد (ba’da ghad)
5. Day before yesterday = أول أمــــــــــس (awwal-ams)
6. Today = الْيَــــــــــــــوْم (al-yaum)
7. Later = فِيْــــــــــمَا بَعْـــــــــد (fīmā ba’d)
8. This night = اللَّيــــــــــــــــلة (al-lailah)
9. Morning = صَبَــــــــــــاحًا (ṣabāhan)
10. Afternoon = عَشِيَّـــــــــــةً (‘Asyiyyatan)
11. Night = مَسَـــــــــــــــــــاءًا (masā-an)
12. After /before = سَــــــابِـــــــقَــــــا (sābiqan)
13. This moment = مُـــؤَخَّــــــــــــرًا (mu-akh-kharan)
14. Soon = قَرِيْـــــــــــــــبًا (qarīban)
15. Still = مَــــــــــازال (māzāl)
16. Yet = ليـــــــــس بعد (laisa ba’d)
17. Just = لَحْظَـــــــــــــةً (lahẓah)
18. Never = أبــــــــــدَا (abadan)
19. Forever = الى الأبــــــد (ilal-abad)
20. Soon on = فـــــــــــوراً / على الفور (fauran/’alal-faur)
Example of adverb of place in Arabic :
1. Under : تحتى
2. Over/above : فوق
3. Behind : وراء
4. In front of : امام
5. Right : يمين
6. Left : شمال
7. Here : هنا
8. There : هنك
6. ADVERB AS A PART OF SPEECH
The primary function of an adverb is modifying a verb. But it can also modify an adjective or another adverb.
Hornby defines adverb as follows:
“Adverb is a word that answers question with how, when, where, and modifies verb, adjective, and other adverb.”(Hornby, 1974:14) Oxford University Press
CLASIFICATION OF ADVERB BY FUNTION
1. ADVERBS OF MANNER
This type of adverb modifies the verb to answer the question “How”.
The words that indicates this adverb are:
Quickly, bravely, happily, hard, fast, well, etc
2. ADVERBS OF PLACE AND DIRECTION
This type of adverb modifies the verb to answer the question “where”.
The words that indicate this adverb are:
Here, there, in the cupboard, in America, etc.
3. ADVERBS OF TIME
Adverbs of time modify the verbs or predicate complements to answer the question “When/what time”
The words that usually used: After wards, eventually, now, tomorrow, yesterday, the day before yesterday, soon, late etc.
4. ADVERBS ESPRESSING DEGREES OF CERTAINTY
This type of adverb modifies the verb to express degrees of certainty of an activity.
The words that indicate this adverb are:
a. Apparently, certainly, evidently, obviously
b. Definitely, clearly
5. ADVERBS OF DURATION
This is used for those adverbials that answer the question (for) how long.
a. For a long time, for several minutes, etc.
b. From morning to evening, from May to August, etc.
c. Till tomorrow morning, till last week, etc.
6. ADVERBS OF FREQUENCY
These adverbs are used for those adverbials that answer the question “How often”.
The words that express this adverb are:
a. Frequency, always, continually, often, once, etc.
b. Ever, never, rarely, seldom, hardly ever.
7. ADVERBS OF DEGREE
This adverb modifies adjectives or other adverbs.
The words that indicate this adverb are:
Almost, nearly, quite, just, too, enough, extremely, only, so, well, etc.
8. ADVERBS OF PARTICLES
Sometimes the particles are functioned as adverbs. The particles are up, down, in, out, away, over, etc. Sometimes particles are followed the nouns to become preposition.
In English, adverbs can be formed by some rules as follows:
1. Adding the derivational suffix (-ly) to derived adjectives. Derived adjectives are made from noun + suffix (-ful, -less, -ive, etc). The derived adverbs can be formed are: healthily, remarkably, hopefully, etc.
2. Adding the derivational suffix (-ly) to base adjectives, examples: slowly, strangely, falsely, usually, etc.
3. Adding the derivational prefix (a) to nouns, stems, adjectives, examples: a head, a part, a slide, a long, a broad, etc.
4. Adding derivational suffix (-wise) to noun, example: lengthwise, actor wise, etc.
5. Adding derivational suffix (-ward) to limited group of nouns, example: backward, homeward, forward. The process number 1 – 5 is called affixation process.
6. Combining the noun determiners (some, any, every, no) with a limited list of nouns and function words, for example: someplace, somewhere, anywhere, nobody, etc.
7. Use of certain function words (particles/preposition) as adverbs, examples: up, down, out, over, etc.
THE POSITION OF ADVERBS
There are 3 possible positions of adverbs as follows:
1. Initial/front position. It means that adverb can be placed in the beginning of a sentence. Example:
Tomorrow I am going to go to your office.
2. Mid position. It means that adverb can be placed at the mid of a sentence, example:
We are usually happy to see you.
3. End/final position It means that adverb can be placed at the end of a sentence, example:
You must do your homework carefully.
In accordance with the aim of study, the approach is directed and outlined to answer the research problem. The study in this case, involves two components of languages; English and Indonesian language, especially on the kind, formation and position of adverb. The study here is comparative study, which seeks and analyzes the similarities and differences between English and Arabic adverbs kind, formation and position.
A. POPULATION AND SAMPLE
The population of this study is all base and derived adverbs and new forms. The population is taken from written language, for example: novel from the two languages. The writer, here, does not take the oral population of language, because it is very difficult to record and needs a long time.
As sample, the writer chooses to novels that consist of best and derived adverbs/new form. These are written by reputable authors. One is an English novel and the other is an Arabic reading material.
B. DATA COLLECTION
In collecting the data, as the writer states before that the study is a comparative analyzes story, which emphasizes on linguistics competent, so he uses instrument.
Here, reading some books, which has relationships with the study, is to gain some theories on the adverb formations, gain and position and its related discussion. It is used to support the view on the morphological process for analyzing the data and presenting them according to the aim of the research. The book taken the support the description of the study are from many sources especially linguistics or morphology.
In this instrument, the writer documented the data from the target population of the two differences reading material. Put it is, as a matter of fact, used three main steps of documentation the data;
The first step is mainly done by reading the materials. While reading the material the writer identifies the base and derived adverb of new forms by underlining or circling the target words.
2.2. Making Lists
After identifying the base and derived adverbs or new form of the two-difference tesk, the writer makes lists to both of them.
In this step, the writer classifies the lists made according to their process of adverbs.
C. DATA ANALYSIS
Breaking down the to know the description of similarities and differences between English and Arabic adverb, the writer does the following steps:
1. Component (based or derived adverb or new forms)
2. Finding the relation among the components.
3. Knowing the process of formation.
Example for number 1, 2, 3.
The derived adverb A LOUD
The word “A LOUD” is created from A + LOUD:
1. A is a derivational prefix
2. LOUD (adjective as a stem)
A is derivational prefix that changes the part of a speech; adjective to adverb.
Consequently, after it is done, either base or derived adverbs of English and Arabic languages to be analyzed, finally the writer does the last step.
4. Analyzing the similarities and differences between English and Arabic adverb formation, kind, or position by writing parallel.
AJ Thomson and Martinet, 1980, A Practical English Grammar, Oxford University Press.
Adrian Akmajian, Richard A. Damers, Roberto, M. Harnish, Linguistics: An Introduction to Language And Communication, 1984, University of Arizona, London, England, The MIT Press Canbridge Massachusetts.
Balai Pustaka, Pedoman Umum Bahasa Indonesia yang Disempurnakan, 1982, Jakarta Depdikbud.
Frencies, W. Nelson, The Structure of American English Grammar, 1958, Co. New york, The Ronald Press.
George Yule, The Study of Language, Lousiana State University.
Keraf, Gorys, Dr, Tata Bahasa Indonesia,1984, Ende, Nusa Indah, Flores.
M. Ramlan,Drs, Prof, Morfologi, 1985, Yogyakarta, Cv. Karyomo.
A Research Proposal
ADVERB IN ENGLISH AND ARABIC
ENGLISH DEPARTEMENT LITERATURE FACULTY
MOSLEM UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA