Pages

Monday, 3 June 2013

CONTOH proposal Skripsi Bahasa Inggris Reading Comprehension


                                                                CHAPTER I

                                                                                                               INTRODUCTION                             


            This chapter deals with background, problem statement, objective of the research, significance of the research and scope of the research.

A.  Background
            Being successful in teaching English is the dominant factor that the English teacher should pay attention to, especially in teaching reading. Through reading, one can enhance his experience, develop new concept, solve his problem, and broaden his horizon of thinking, which are needed to ensure continuing personal growth and adopt the change in the world yet the importance of reading has not been realized by most of our society a large number of our population is classified as poor readers and the majority of the people are content to read materials of poor quality.
In reading comprehension, the message to be imposed in the written form is the most important element that the students must recognize, because the primary purpose of reading is to know the thoughts expressed in the printed material. Therefore, reading wit comprehension is only a way for the students to arrive at what they want to know from the reading material. However, the problem is how to make them comprehend.
For students from elementary to university level, reading is something that has to be done. They have to read their compulsory books or other materials related to their lesson. For students who are studying languages, reading is one of the skills, which has to be learned and is considered as the most important one because it can influence other language skill (listening, speaking, and writing). According to Kustaryo (1988;2) it is certainly not easy to present the English reading for Indonesian students whose language system is different. Reading is a complex process which involves not only the read the text but also their experience to comprehend it. Because of its complexity, many teachers of English at junior and senior high school find difficulties in all teaching reading and prefer teaching structure to reading. Based on all reason above, the writer thinks that humour stories can motivate students to read, because humor stories are interested in conducting research entitle “ Improving the student’s Reading comprehension by using humour stories” of the second garde of  year students of SMA Negeri 5 Makassar.

In the teaching reading, English. Teacher should introduce the humor stories as an alternative way to give variation to the students in teaching and learning process.
Based on the junior high school curriculum, reading is one of the four skills in studying English. Reading consists of narrative, descriptive, procedure, news item, recount, and anecdote. The aim of the students learn reading, they have to know basic competence and achievement indicators in reading. Basic competence of reading: Understand transactional discourse, interpersonal discourse, and oral monologue especially in the forms of descriptive, narrative, anecdote, analytical exposition, and hortatory exposition using oral language variation. And achievement indicators; Students can read continuous story, students can identify rhetorical moves of a text in the narrative, descriptive, and anecdote form, students can identify main ideas, Supporting ideas, and detailed information of the text, and students can identify and use the tense

B.  Problem Statement
            According to the statement above, the research question is formulated as follows:
           Does the use of humour stories improve the reading comprehension of the second year students of  SMA Negeri 5 Makassar?
C.  Objective of the Research
      The objective of the research is to find out whether the use of humour stories in teaching reading can improve student’s reading comprehension to the second grade students of  SMA Negeri 5 Makassar.

D. Significance of the Research
               The result of the research is expected to be useful reference for the English language teaching particularly for teaching reading students’ for the English teacher for other and for the writer himself.

E.  Scope of the Research
This research is restricted to the use of humour stories as reading materials from text book in English class. By discipline, this research is under applied linguistics. By content, this study is limited to discussion to the use 30 essay  tests question  method to improve the students’ reading comprehension and by activity this research administered pretest to find out the prior knowledge of the students for example; reading material test that consist of humor stories. The topic are wrong thought, special gift, watch the door and going to the zoo, and posttest that would be done after a number of treatment to discover, the reading ability subjects in applying this case, the writer used humor stories, especially to the second year students of SMA Negeri 5 Makassar.

                               CHAPTER II

              REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE

      This chapter deals with some previous research findings. Some pertinent ideas, theoretical framework and hypothesis.

A.  Previous Research Findings
Many researches have report to expose the identification of student’s achievement in learning English to make the teaching and learning process more effective some of the researchers’ findings are ated concisely below:  
Halimah (2002) in her research she concluded that the students have positive attitude toward the use of written humor in learning speaking because the written humor can motivate and activate students in learning speaking beside that students’ don’t feel stress in learning by using written humor.
Asriyani Alwi st (2003) in her research she concluded that the use of humorous stories material in the teaching of English reading could motivate the student’s SLTP Negeri 36 Sudiang Makassar to read English material
Fatmawati ( 2004 ) in her research she concluded that the reading text used at junior high school were improved from the first to the second and the third year. In senior high school were unorganized because the score of the third year is lower than the first and the second year score.
Mutmainnah ( 2001 ) in her research she concluded that the application of cooperative learning in improving the student’s reading comprehension is more effective than conventional one before treatment applied while the students achievement in two post test shows that the application of cooperative learning is able to improve the students’ score.
From the previous findings above, the writer using humor stories techniques as a media in teaching because humor stories are one way to improve students’ activity in reading class. This research has difference with previous finding above. The writer used humor stories into steps: (1) Introduce about the humor stories and identify main ideas, (2) Read the questions, (3) Supporting ideas, (4) getting the general and specific information, (5) find out the answer in reading materials. In this case, the teachers are expected to give and use many kinds o technique in reading class and also the interesting materials.
B. Definition of Reading
1.      What is Reading?
There are reading definition are given by some people, which related the similar meaning.
Charles in Tohir (2001:5) states that reading is a transmitting of information process where the author tells all the readers about his ideas or message. Such as, the author is regard as the informants (sender) and the reader on the another hand is receiver. During the reading process it means that the reader can be done during reading activity is only grasping and decoding information, meanwhile he can not as question or comment to the author directly.
Tinker and Cullogh (1975:9) state reading is identification and recognition of print or written symbol, which serve as stimuli for the recall of meaning built up through past experience. From those definitions, it can be concluded reading is meaning getting process the reader always tries to catch what the writer says and means actually. Also from those definitions of reading some people formulate definitions of reading comprehension.
According to William (1984:486) reading can be point as four step process. The four steps are interrelated to other, they are:
1.      Word perception, the ability to recognize a point
2.      Comprehension, the ability to infer ideas from words
3.      Reaction, a step in which the reader interacts intellectually and emotionally.
4.      Integration, absorbing the ideas in context of one’s personal background.
            Finally, Harris et all (1980:5) define reading as a process of meaning elaboration or thinking in relation to written symbols. The recognition and comprehension Written symbols are influenced by reader’s perception skill, experience, language background, mind sets and reasoning abilities as they anticipate meaning on the bases of what has read.


2.      Reading Concept
            There are different reading definition given by linguistics which indicate the similar sense of meaning some defied that reading is a comfortable activities for relax time, come others state that reading is valuable learning activity where knowledge and science are required to be acquired by the students academically.
            According to Rubin (1982) reading is the bringing of meaning to and the getting of meaning from the printed pages while Simanjutak (1988) states that reading is the process of putting to reader in contact and communication with ideas. Widdowson in Rubin (1982) states that reading is not a reaction to text but an interaction between writer and reader medicated through the text. It is clear that reading is a fundamental requirement that can influence the student’s achievement in studying English through reading, we can broaden our horizon of thinking  
Anthony (1995:77) states that teaching English as a foreign language to the second language learners requires the learners to be able to use this language to in daily, interaction either in the classroom learning process that are well known as in formal communication, but we can deny that we have not yet achieved the goal of teaching English as a foreign language.
            In teaching reading English teacher should introduce other materials as an alternative to give variation to the student in teaching and learning process. These materials can be a form of media that can create a comfortable atmosphere to interest and stimulate the student in the classroom learning process.
            Learning English could be fun for the students who learn another language. In this case, teachers of English should have a good preparation in teaching. It is very essential for the teachers to create a good classroom atmosphere and to avoid the students from getting bored. According to William in Rahman, teaching must be learned in such a way that learning becomes interesting.
            A wide selection material will be interesting if the material is humorous. Sudjoko in Hamka (2001;3) says that humor can entertain, humor also can help some one to comprehend any complex matters. Because the importance of humor in learning and teaching, the writer offers the use of a kind of humor. Which is funny (Written humor) in teaching reading . Reading is an active in which the reader must make an active contribution by drawing upon and using concurrently various abilities he has acquired. In addition, reading is concerned mainly with learning to recognize the printed symbols that represent language and to respond intellectually and emotionally when being asked about the content of the she/he has read.

3.      Definition of Reading Comprehension
What does reading comprehension mean?
To answer the question, the writer intentionally presents opinions of some authors or writers as follows.
Before dealing with the definition of reading comprehension it is necessary to define the word reading and comprehension. Hornby (1974:711) explains that reading is the act of one who reads ; knowledge, ESP, of books : the ways in which something is interpreted, while comprehension is the act of understanding, the ability of the mind to understand  Procter in Rahman (1998:6) Evison in Tahir (2001:8) explain that comprehension is the mind’s power of understanding, or the ability to understand.
Thinker (1975;5) states that reading comprehension is not just reading with a loud voice but also to establish and understand the meaning of words, sentence, and paragraph sense the relationship among the ideas. As it is, if a student just reads loudly, but can not understand the content of the passages, it means he/she fails in comprehending the passage.
Ophelia (1989;205) assumes that reading comprehension is understanding evaluating and utilizing of information between author and reader. It sounds like the author and the reader can communicate one other. It means that a reader in this case, tries to understand what he is saying.
Smith and Dale (1980:7) state that reading comprehension means understanding, evaluating, utilizing of information and gaining through an interaction between reader and author. Reading comprehension is such a kind of dialogue between reader and author in which the written language becomes the medium that cause the dialogue happen when the two persons communicate through the medium of print reading comprehension refers to reading with comprehension. Thus reading comprehension is reading by comprehension the meaning of a passage or what is or has been read. One who reads something by understanding it can be said that he does a reading comprehension.
          Comprehension is a special kind of thinking process. The reader comprehends by actively constructing meaning internally from interacting with the material that is read (Anderson and Pearson in Alexander, (1993;160). Successful comprehension involves the reader who can discovery the meaning. It may be finding a particular piece of information, solving a problem through reading, working to understand an idea or following a set of directions. From the point of view given above, it can be concluded that reading is an active thinking process where the reader tries to gain information given by the author and understands what actually the purpose of author.
4.      Levels of Reading Comprehension
The following are levels of reading comprehension according to Smith (1969) and Carnine (1990):
a)  Level of reading comprehension according to Smith (1969) and Wayne (1979) are.
1.      Literal comprehension; that is the skill of getting primary direct literal meaning of a word, idea, or sentence in context.
2.      Interpretation; that is to identify ideal and meaning that are not explicitly stated in the written text.
3.      Critical reading; that is to evaluate what is read, and examines critically the thought of the writer.
4.      Creative reading; that is to apply ideas from the text to new situations and to recombine author’s ideas with other ideas to from new concepts or to expand old ones.       
b)   Level of reading comprehension Carnine in Carnine (1990) are:
1.      Comprehension skill for the primary level consists of:
a)      Literal comprehension; that is to receive information stated in a passage
b)      Sequencing comprehension; that is to under several from a passage according to when they happened.
c)      Summarization; that is to receive information stated in a passage.  
2.      Comprehension skill for the intermediate level consist of:
a)      Inferential comprehension; that is to reveal relationship between two objects or averts (stated on not stated).
b)      Critical reading; that is to identify the author’s conclusion to determine what evidence is presented, and to identify family argument.
c)      Comprehension skill for the advanced level that is the appreciation of the author’ work.
5.   The Reasons for Reading
According to Harmer (1987). there are four reasons for reading, they are:
1.      Reading in language learning
      Reading is an exercise dominated by the eyes and the brain. The eyes receive     message and the brain then has to work out the significance of these message. The reading to confirm expectation technique is highly motivation and successful since it interest students, creates expected, and gives them a purpose for reading. 

2.      Reading for language learning
In real life people generally read something because they want to and they have a purpose, which is more fundamental than involved in some language learning tasks seem only to be asking about details at language. People read to language because they have a desire to do so and a purpose to achieve.
3.      Reading for information
In most cases, reading for information is relevant to current study of the reader they read to find out information, to reduce their uncertainties.
4.   Reading for pleasure
Reading for pleasure is done without other people’s order but according to an individual reader’s wish, and taste.         
6.   Kinds of Reading
Three kinds of reading, they are:
a)   Reading Aloud
In reading aloud, the students will get experience in producing the sound, which should be practice as many as possible. Reading aloud is divided in two kinds. They are unison is done with whole group. It is done to check pronunciation, intonation, the students ability to read and helps teacher to find out who among his students has difficulty in reading.


b)   Silent Reading
Silent reading is reinforcesing the readers to find out the meaning of the words. This kind of reading leads the readers to the better comprehension. This reading is skill to criticize what is written, to discuss written meaning and to draw inference and conciliation as well as to tell new ideas on thesis of what is read.
c)   Reading Fast
Reading fast used to improve speed and comprehension in reading. This skill must sun side with the main purpose of reading that is comprehension it depends on the kinds of reading material. This speed rate if reading a story or narrative on will be different room reading scientific mat.6. The aerials.
7.  The Strategy of Reading
There are three strategies we tend to approach when we read, they are;
a.   Skimming
Skimming is to read text superficially a rapidly in order obtain the gist or main idea it is a skill that requires concentration. Adequate knowledge among of practice is necessary in order to skim fulfill their purposes.
b.  Scanning
Scanning is to read a text quickly in order to locate a specific item of information it is used to design the process of locating quickly a particular word, phrase, sentence, and fact of figure with a selection.

c. Intensive reading

Intensive reading is a for recall or total accuracy it is an activity in class way in using reading. It deals with the detail content and linguistic study.
8.   Selection of materials
Teacher of English language are expected to be more creative and more innovative selecting and then presenting materials relatively and using a wide variety of resources that can enhance and motivate students to learn English. Through anecdotes, the student will be entertained in reading the materials. The reading materials should be interesting; the teacher should notice that in selecting the materials he/she should be sure that they are in time of student’s interest in order towing their attention. This is important for the smooth less of the way to the students to good concentration and attitude toward reading lesson. If the materials are not interesting, the students will passively not pay much attention to the lesson. This way means that the teacher will be difficult to attain the objective of his teaching.
According to Huck in Burns (1984), intermediate students are interested in reading fiction, biographies adventure and stories of the past. They like suspense, action and humor. Teacher can asses student personal reading interest them. In selection reading materials, there are at least three areas that should be concern:
(a)   The level of linguistic difficulty
            Cooper in Gwin (1990) and Chunk states that unpracticed readings in a foreign language tend to use a word-by-word approach while more practice readers are able to Chunk information. Based on the statement above, we can decide that the select material should be at the language level of the student.
            A material that is too difficult, where every word has to be explain, or which uses extremely complex grammatical construction is only likely to produce frustration similarly a material that is too easy does not extend the students knowledge. The material should be regard, sequence and varied so their linguistic content and difficulty the ability of the students.
(b)   Cultural content
            Reading materials reflect the culture perception of the writer. Therefore, many reading materials, especially non-scientific material, or culturally biased, and so can cause comprehension problems for the students. For example, Indonesian students might have difficulty with the story about an American child who gases into his teacher’s eyes in search of compassion. The opposite of true in Indonesian culture where the children show respect by not looking into their superior’s eyes.
If the teacher believes that the culture content would interfere with student comprehension, such material can be avoid an opportunity for students to gain new awareness of different culturally define behaviors, in such a case, the teacher can explain the differences in culture behavior to the student before their read (Gwin, 1990).


(c)   The interest factor
The third area that should be concerned in selecting various reading materials is the interest. It is had by the students because the evidence that students’ motivation in reading is greater when material interest them.
How can teacher provide various reading materials that are interesting for the students? Most students of English tale interest in book or short story in which characters are involved in learning a second language. However, teacher can also discover the kind topic that interest their reading preferences.
One factor that also should be concerned is the level of the materials’ vocabulary because even though they are interested in the subject matter of material we have chosen, they will soon lose interest if they find the vocabulary too difficult. This is why teacher should decide during their lesson preparation that the meaning of the new word can be derived from the material it self when the learner reading it  (Rubin, 1982 ).
Relate with how to select language learning materials. Richard and Rogers in Mantasiah ( 2000:14) give specification :
1.      Material will allow learners to progress at their own rates of learning
2.      Material will allow for different styles of learning
3.      Material will provide opportunities independent study
4.      Material will provide opportunities for evaluating and progress in learning.

9.  Technique of Improving Reading Skill
To achieve the purpose of reading one should read effectively. General in Rahman (1998:8) states that effective reading means being able to read accurately, efficiently and to understand as much of the passage as you read in order to achieve your purpose.
     To achieve one purpose of reading, he can apply some reading technique as follows:
a)   Survey Reading
Brown (1987:930) says surveying is specialized technique for getting a mountain top new of an article chapter content and it helps to give a general point of view.
b)   Skimming
Skimming is a kind of reading that make our eyes move quickly in order to get the main idea from the reading material. Skimming enable people to select content that want to read and to discard that which is in consequential for their purpose.
c)    Scanning
Scanning is reading the text quickly to answer a specific question. This technique enables people to locate specific information without reading all the material around It. Brown (1987;138 ) states that scanning serves two functions. It uncovers relevant information and accelerates your reading speed.


d)    Pre-reading
Pre-reading is a technique that a reader uses before he began to read the material to improve his comprehension and recall. Whorter ( 1992 ; 25 ) states that pre-reading involves only at those part of reading materials that will tell you what it is about or how it is organize. Further he explains the port on to look at in reading a text book chapter are:
1.      Read the title
2.      Read the introduction or opening paragraph
3.      Read the first sentence under each heading
4.      Read each boldface heading.
5.       Notice any typographical aids.
6.      Notice any graph or pictures.
7.      Read the last paragraph or summary (Whorter, 1992:26)
            Grabe in Rahman (1998:2) states that pre-reading activities very useful in the reading class because they have been referee to as instruments teachers can use in the class to active student’s background knowledge, it can be conduct that pre-reading is very effective because it helps a reader to give basic information about the organization and the content of the materials.




C. Humor          
1.      What is humor?
According to Webster New world Dictionary (1996), humor is the quality that makes something seems funny or amusing: comicality, it also means mood, state of mind humor must be funny but it has to be considered that funny element is not the humor but symptom of it. Funny is used in the little to refer to humor and act, which can cause laughter.
2.      Theories of Humor
Humor in modern usage means the comic or laughable. In general sense, all theories of humor could be divided into two classes; those that find all humor and laughter innocent, harmless and joyful. More precisely the theories of humor can be divided into three groups;
1.      Theories of superiority or degradation
2.      Theories of incongruity dissociation
3.      Theories of relief of tension or release from inhibition
 There are many theories of humor; clown and jokes but none of them can describe completely what humor is actually.
a)   Superiority and Degradation
Voltaire in Enclopedia Americana (1995) said laughter arises from a gayety of disposition absolutely in compartable with contempt and indignation another dissenter Jean Paul Richter, also in Enclopedia Americana wrote that the observe of a humorous situation most subjectively identification himself with the object of laughter. Humor finds no individual fools but only foolishness I foolish world and is therefore tenderly tolerant: this theory was develop by Dunlop lea code and Rapp.
b. Incongruity and Dissociation
Theories of this group have been held as widely, if not so long as those of the first group. Braise Pascal in Encyclopedia Americana (1995) emphasizes the frustration of expectation nothing makes people laugh so much as a surprising disparity between what they expect and what they see. A resent and highly encompassing theory of humor is Arthur Koestler’s theory of dissociation. Henri Bergson almost anticipated the dissociation theory when he said, a situation is invariable comic when it belongs simultaneously to two altogether independent series of events and is capable of being interpreted in two entirely different meanings at the same time. This theory was developing by Guthrie, Willman and Baisilic.
c)   Relief of tension humor
The function of humor in this theory is to release people from inhibition, unpleasant and even suffer. This theory is also grouped into surprise theory, which was stated by Spencer and Kline in Pradopo (1987) states that people’s tension sometimes out of control.
Which is caused by a high emotion and usually, handled by the sense of humor. We can see in our daily life a person with anger or a hard stress already releases (Soebardi:1997). This theory was developed by Spencer, Kline and Rapp.
Summation of the Theories of Humor
Of all the theories, those of superiority of degradation seem the most limited. They are excellent in dealing with satisfaction, incentive, sarcasm and laughter at misfortune but are of little help in dealing with whimsy nonsense, puns, incongruities and ardency.
      Humor certainly is multifaceted, it can be aggressive it can deal with nonsense or incongruous, it can be sympathetic and understanding, it can develop intellectual squint as it attempt to see all sides of a question, it can be playful or intelligent. It can even be serious as satire and the rises of black humor indicate, but it can no be false. Humor, even at its most malicious, even at its most exaggerated, can not dessert   truth toilet, the King’s answer is the only pooper one and you lie Sirrah, we’ll have you whipped.
Function of Humor
            Sudjoko in Hamka (2001) says that humor can function to do all intention and all goals in every facet, humor can make someone to see problem in any different sides, humor can entertain, humor can swift mind, humor can increase someone smartness, humor can make someone tolerate something and humor also can help some one to comprehend any complex matters. Actually our society have realize some functions of humor, as policy function or refreshing tool to make people able to concentrate their attention for long time. In the advance country, employees sometimes make humor as long as it helps to facilate their work or function to reach their goal. Another important function of humor is recreation in this case, the role of humor is to vanish the saturation in people routine activities such as working or studying. Besides as an entertainment, humor also function as tool to convey critic, which is usually indirect. Recently, this kind of humor grows greatly as our society become more critical and they already able to see any betrayal in our surroundings.
Humor also functions to explain something in an attraction way, if they find any hard matter, they will seek humor that is relevant to the matter. This method also used in explaining sexual problems to the young generations.

Kinds of Humor
Setiawan in Hamka (2001) categorize humor according to its expression form he states the kinds of humor as in the following:
1.      Performing comedy. Such as jest, pantomime, etc, graphic humor such as caricature funny picture etc
2.      Literature humor such as funny story humor stories, anecdote etc. Koesler in Hamka (2001) categorized humor into two classes, according to its performance and according to its goal.
Humor in the view of performance can be divided into three as in the following:
a)      Spoken humor
b)      Written humor
c)      Body movement humor
The Fe­atures of Humor
There are some features of humor (anecdote) as follows:
  1. It is short and simple story
  2. It usually relates one incident
  3. It begins close to the control idea
  4. Includes important concrete detail
  5. It often contains several quakes
  6. It close quickly after the climax
  7. Requires punctual for the punch line
                                                                                    (Manen Mc. Gil, 2000)
7.      Why use Humor?
Humor story is a kind an anecdote it is short narrative of an interesting, or amusing, or biographical incident it can motivate students to reading, because it is interesting, enjoyable and funny for students
The advantage of using Humor;
  1. Arise the students’ attention
  2. Give entertainment or enjoyment
  3. Interesting
In teaching reading, english teacher should introduce the humor stories as an alternative way to give variation to the students in teaching and learning process. Humor stories can make someone to see problem many different sides, humor can entertain, humor can swift mind, humor can increase. Someone smartness, humor can also can help someone to comprehend any complex matters. The students can understand the implicit meaning and stages of theoretic development in written text in the form of narrative procedure, descriptive, anecdote, report, recount and new items.

D. Theoretical Framework

            Reading material as one element in English language teaching has the important role. Because reading material as one factor that might influence the students reading comprehension.
The theoretical framework is put in the diagram below

In the diagram above, the three main components are input, process, and output
  1. Input refers to the humorous stories that will be given to the students’
  2. Process refers to the implementation of humorous stories in teaching reading ability in the classroom
  3. Output refers to the students’ reading comprehension achievement.

E. Hypothesis

The hypothesis of the research presented as follows:
H1 (Alternative hypothesis)    :    There is a significant difference of the students’ reading comprehension before and after presenting reading material by using humor stories.
(H0) Null hypothesis               :    There is no significant result students reading comprehension before and after giving treatment..

                                        CHAPTER III

                            METHOD OF THE RESEARCH



This chapter deals with variable and research design, population and sample, instrument of the research, procedure of collecting data and technique of data analysis.

A.    Variable and Research Design
1.  Variable
     This research consists of two variables. They are:
1.      Independent variable was the use of humor stories to improve reading comprehension. Humor is the quality that makes something seem funny or amusing to comprehend any complex matters.
2.      Dependent variable was the students reading comprehension means understanding, evaluating, utilizing information and gaining through an interaction between reader and author.

2. Research Design
     The research employed a pre-experimental method with one class pretest and posttest design. The diagram was given below:



       01                                   X                               02
   Where :
           01 =  Pretest
           X  =  Treatment
           02 =   Posttest
(Gay, 1981 : 225)
B.     Population and Sample
1. Population
The population of this research was the second grade students of SMA Negeri 5 Makassar in the 2006/2007 academic year. The number of population 360 students consisted of nine classes; each class consisted of 30 – 40 students.
2. Sample
The writer took only one class as the sample and respondent of this research. The number of the sample is 30 students were chosen (II IPA1) because that class is excellent class than the other classes. This sample was chosen by using cluster random sampling technique.
C.    Treatment
The researcher carried out the class in four meetings. In each meeting the researcher used to be discussed.
1.      The first meeting was on Tuesday, 10th October 2006, the topic is about My Holidays
a.       The researcher introduces about the humor stories.
b.      The researcher gave explanation about reading comprehension by using humor stories to stimulate the students.
2.      The second meeting was on Wednesday, 11th October 2006, the topic is about Restaurant
a.       The researcher asked the students what their difficulties about the humor stories.
b.      The researcher gave 3 (three) humor stories as a sample and then students read
3.      The third meeting was on Tuesday, 17th October 2006, the topic is about Policeman and Bachelor
a.       The researcher gave essay test and each student answer the questioned about the humor stories.
b.      The researcher asked the students again what their difficulties about the humor stories.
4.      The fourth meeting was on Wednesday, 1st November 2006, the topic is about Frog
a.       The researcher gave essay test again by using humor stories and the students repeat and correction.
D.    Instrument of  The Research
The instrument of this research was a reading test. The reading test was administrated in the pre-test and the post-test. The test consisted of 30 essay tests. The researcher choose essay test because the students can comprehend the material while the post-test was intended to know the students’ reading comprehension.
E.     The Procedures of Collecting Data in this Research as follows:
1.      Pretest
Before doing treatment, the researcher applied a pre-test which was carried out on Wednesday morning, 4th October 2006. It lasted in 90 minutes, with 2 x 45 minutes. Students were in the class joining the test. The researcher distributed to identify the students’ prior knowledge in reading comprehension.
2.      Posttest
After doing treatment was on Wednesday morning, 8th November 2006. The writer post-test for the experimental class. It lasted for 2 x 45 minutes. The post-test was conducted to find out the students’ achievement and their progress after giving the treatment about the use humor stories in reading comprehension. The content of the pretest was the same as the post test.
F.     Technique of Data Analysis
To analysis the data, the writer employed the formula as follows;
1.  Scoring the students’ correct answer of pretest and posttest
      Score =
2.      The score of the students pretest and posttest
a.       9.6 to 10 classified as excellent
b.      8.6 to 9.5 classified as very good
c.       7.6 to 8.5 classified as good
d.      6.6 to 7.5 classified  fairly good
e.       5.6 to 6.5 classified fair
f.       3.6 to 5.5 classified as poor
g.      0 to 3.5 classified as very poor
                                                                           (Kanwil depdikbud, 1985)
    3. Computing the frequency of the rate percentage of the students’ score
Where:
            n          : frequency
            N         : The total number of students.
                                                                        (Heaton, 1988: 73)     
4. Calculating the mean score of the students’ answer by using formula:
           
            Where  X        : Mean Score
                                           : Total row score
                                     N        : The total number of students
                                                                                                (Arikunto, 1995 : 371)
5.      Finding out the significant difference between the pretest and posttest by calculating the value of the test. The following formula is employed :
Where :
                                          : Deviation
                                         : Standard deviation
                                    N         : Number of students
           
            Where
                        SD       : Standard deviation
                               : Total row score
                        N         : The total number of students
                                                                                                (Gay, 1987:363)         
           
Where :
                      : The difference between the score of pretest and posttest
                        D : The mean score from the different score of pretest and posttest
                        D2 : The square of D
                        N : Number of students
                                                                                      
Reactions:

2 comments:

Post a Comment