1.1. Background of the study
English is very important language in the world. It uses as a medium of conveying knowledge and it is very contributive language for learning various kinds of knowledge such as science, history, culture, politics, and economics and so on.English as a foreign language is not just only used as a daily communication, but it is also used to gain knowledge. In teaching English there are four basic skills, they are reading, language area. If the students need to master English, they must develop the four skills. (Maharani, 2007:1).
The fourth that skill each other interconnected one another. Example, if we will to write, we start with other activity like reading. Writing and reading are like two part of money equipping one another. Writing skill is impossible without reading custom because reading will broaden knowledge and perception. Writing involves some language components (spelling, grammar, vocabulary, and punctuation). This is in line with what is stated by Braine and Claire May (1996:60), writing clear sentences requires you to learn the rules of English grammar and mechanics such as the correct use of verbs and pronouns, as well as commas and other marks of punctuation.
There are various ways to organize the sentences in a piece of writing. One of them is recount text. Recount text is the form of text that aims at retelling events for the purpose of informing or entertaining. In the recount text, the sentences are usually organized according to time order or chronological order. One thing happens and then another thing happens, and the events are told in the same order.
According to Suparno and Yunus (2003) writing is expressing idea, concept, feeling or opinion by using written language. Writing can be defined by as an activity of forwarding of message, (communication) by using written language as media. Communication in written language have four elements that are, writer as consignor of message, writing content, media in the form of article, and reader as receiver of message. Based on my experiences, there are some problems found in the field when giving writing materials to the students, especially the recount text.
First problem is that the students writing are not comprehensible, because the content of the composition is not relevant to the topic, the ideas are not clearly stated, the ideas and sentences are not well organized. The second problem is that there are many errors in vocabulary, grammar, and spelling. Another problem is the students have low motivation and are not interested in doing the task since the writing activities are not interesting. Usually, the students are asked to write sentences and paragraphs without being given some clue so that it is difficult for them to express their ideas on a piece of paper.
In the competence based curriculum 2004, recount is being taught in the year ten, so the year twelve students have mastered how to write a good recount composition in English. They have had the basic of making a goodcomposition in English. Contrasted with the fact, we still find any mistakes from the students who try to write their recount text. Most of students have problems in finding a good diction for their recount writing, improving the idea and use of the grammar within the story (Zuhri, 2009: V).
Students find learning English very difficult and complex. Of the four skills, writing is considered a complicated skill for students to master as it involves a complex activity requiring a variety of skill. Mukminatin (1997) in Hafniah (2008) reported why students have difficulties in writing English. She states that writing in English is not a simple matter because when someone writes something, he or she demonstrates not only his or her competence in grammar of English, but also his or her knowledge in the acceptable English rhetoric and the communicative aspect of writing in English.
Byrne (1988) in Purwanti (2008), states that writing is difficult for students because they are required to write on their own without any interaction or feedback. He further states that in writing the students have to compose their writing by using their own choice of sentence structure and organize their own ideas in such a way that the reader can understand them. And the students sometimes often confuse when retelling experience past tense, because limitation mastering grammar. Until this is basically the students don’t like study English. They also find it difficult to build and to develop their ideas, to choose right diction and to use grammar. Moreover, someone who wants to write a text should know the steps in writing process and aspects of writing. He/she must be able to organize the idea, to construct the sentence, to use punctuation and spelling well. Apart from that, they must be able to arrange their writing into cohesive and coherent paragraphs and texts (Peha, 2002:23). As a matter of a fact, we still have some lakes in quality of writing product especially in producing text. In general, if we look at the reality, we will find that students still have problems in producing good writing.
Besides that, the students have difficulty at telling their experience. This is because writing is difficult for them since they have to master enough vocabulary, spelling, and grammar. In reference to the explanations above and the strong desire of finding the solution of these problems, the writer has motivation to do the research in improving the teaching of writing in real class by using group discussion as the instructional media. It is hoped that the group discussion improve the students’ ability in writing, especially recount text.
This study tries to find the answers to the following research question:
“Are there any effects of group discussion related to the student’s ability in writing recount text”?
1.3 Purpose of the Study
According to the formulation of the problem above, the aims of this study are to:
“Investigate the effectiveness of using group discussion in order to increase student’s ability in writing recount text”.
1.4 Scope and Limitation of the Study
The subject of the study is limited to the second year students of junior high school of MTS NW Mataram. The scope of the study is the uses of simple past tense in writing a text of recount for the second year students of Junior High School.
1.5 Significance ofthe study
The findings of this study are expected to be useful for students. Teachers or educational institution as follows:
1. The students will be motivated to learn English using recount text so that they can increase and improve their ability in writing skills and grammar content.
2. To the teachers (especially English teachers), the result of this research can be used directly by teachers in teaching learning activities to solve problems faced by students in relation to teaching-learning of grammar especially in the context of writing recount text.
Based on the problem statements that presented by the writer, the
Research was done and found that is hypothesis isPositive Hypothesis (Ha): there is significant effect of group discussion to increase student’s ability in WritingRecount text.
1.6 Definition of the key terms
Some terms used in this report can be defined as follows:
a. Effect is words indicate things, which arise out of some antecedent, or follow as a consequence.
b. Recount text is a kind of text that retells events for the purpose of informing or entertaining
c. Student’s ability means the students capacity or skills in writing a text of recount
d. Writing is an activity to write something (e.g. a book, article, essays).
e. Grouping discussion is a modified form of classroom lecture where the focus is shared between the instructor and the students for information transfer.
f. Second Year Students are the Students Second grade at Junior High School
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1.Definition of Writing
People were not born with language. They have to learn how to use it and understand it so they can gain meaning and communicate their message to other. A language: English example has a system of sounds (for speaking) and symbol (for writing) which can be arranged in patterns to communicate meaning between those who know the system. Texts are pieces of spoken or written language created for particular purpose. When someone speak or writes, she/he created texts. When we listen, read or vies texts, we interpret them for meaning (august, 2004).
Oshima and hogue (1981), state that writing is one of the most effective ways to develop thinking. Testing each kill is uniquely difficult, but testing writing present two particular problems. The first is making decisions about the matter of control, objectivity of the evaluation, and naturalness in the writing test. If you decide to test writing in a controlled way and in a way that does not necessarily reflect how the students use the writing in the real world. If on the other hand, you test writing in a way that would reflect how the students use writing in the real world, it is difficult to have control over the writing and to evaluate the students work objectively.
Human being communicate with others using language. They have many different ways in sending a message to others. According to Marsudi (in Syahrial, 1990) human used symbol of sound that can differ from animal to communicate with others. These articulate sounds are called spoken. Thus, we can say that language is an instrument of communication.In this era when English is used by so many people on an international scale and so many areas of daily life. It is not surprising that English become important. In all aspect of human life, English is commonly spoken or used by many people. The use includes informative aspect, for example, majority of electronic media such computer are programmed in English, magazine and newspapers are written in English.
Writing is a progressive activity. This means that when you first write something down, you have already been thinking about what you are going to say and how you are going to say it. That after you have finished writing, you read over what you have written and make changes and corrections. Therefore, writing is never one- step action; it is a process that has several steps.
2.1.1 The stage in writing process
Whatever you are writing habits, they are simply the enabling conditions that allow you to begin and pursue writing process. These habits are the physical and psychological scenery for the central action. The intellectual procedure performs as move through of stage to produce a piece of writing. According to McCrimmon (1983: 10) The writing process will be divided into three stages, they are:
Planning is any orderly procedure used to bring about a desired result. As the first stage in the writing process, planning is of strategies designed to find and produce information in writing. When you begin any writing project, you need to discover what is possible. You need to locate and explore a variety of subjects.
Drafting in procedure for drawing an up preliminary, As the second stage in the writing process, drafting is a strategies designed to organize and develop a sustained piece of writing .Once planning has enabled to indentify several subjects and encouraged you to gather information on those different perspectives, you need to determine what you can best accomplish in writing.
Revising is a procedure for improving or correcting a work in progress. As the third and final stage in the writing process, revising is a strategies designed to re-examine and re-evaluate the choices that that have created a pieceof writing. After have completed the preliminary draft, than to stand back from the text and decide what actions would seem to be most productive.
Writing is one of the language skills to be learned beside speaking, reading and listening. The teaching of writing might be combined with the teaching of the other language skill or component of language skills such grammar and pronunciation.
The writing activities should be structures in ways that help students learn to produce cohesive and discourse on their way to become self sponsors of their own writing.
Harries in hamidsyukrie (1992:4) state that the aspect that build writing are the content of the writing (how to organize it), grammar (structures and dictions) and how to writing the spelling, punctuation and capitalization.
According to Abisamra (1996) in her English journal of teaching grammar in the context of writing said that an effective writing should consist of elements below:
a. Focused on the topic and doesn’t contain extraneous or lose related information.
b. Has an organizational pattern that enables the reader to follow the flow of ideas because it contains a beginning, middle and end and uses transitional devices.
c. A written task should contain supporting ideas that are developed through the use of details, example, vivid language, and mature of word choice.
d. A written task should follow the conventions of standard written English (i.e. punctuation, capitalization, and spelling) and has variation in sentence structure.
According to Anderson (1997: 48) a recount is speaking or writing about past events or a piece of text that retells past events,usually in the order which they happened. Recount text means theform of the text telling about someone experience in the past thatused in curriculum 2004, there for the experience of the readersthemselves, such as their adventure and their day’s activities. RecountText means telling about oneself adventures or the day’s activities(Echols, 1975: 471).
A recount has social function. Recount “tell what happened”. The purpose of a social recount is to document an event and evaluate their significance in some way. It is also to give the audience a descriptions of what occurred and when it occurred. The purpose of the literary / story recount is to tell a sequence of events so that it entertains. The story recount has expressions of attitude and feeling, usually made by narrator about the events.
2.1.2. Kinds of text writing
There are five kinds of text writing in junior high school (Maharan, 2007:65), they are:
1. Descriptive Text
Descriptive text is used to describe special someone, something, or place. Descriptive text appeals to the senses, so it tell how something looks, fells, smells, tastes, and sounds.
A good descriptive is like a “word picture” reader can image the object, place, or person in his or her mind.
2. Recount Text
Recount text is used to retell past event in order of time or place. What happen on Sunday, than on Monday, than on Tuesday? In simple way, recount describes event in detail it does not expose the struggle on how to make them happen. The event happened smoothly.
3. Narrative Text
Narrative text is used to entertain readers, which has problem and solution. Narrative text is story writing. Narrative is about events in order that they happened. In other words, use time order to organize your sentence.
4. Procedure Text
Procedure text is use to tell how to make or operate something.
5. Report Text
Report text is use to inform place, people, or things in general.
2.2. Recount Text Writing
Text recount is text function as for telling an incident in the past. The incident write in the same manner as that incident happen in the past. Recount text can shape fiction or obvious. Recount texts present the experiences in order of time or place. In simple way recount text of event in. It does not expose the struggle on how to make them happen. The purpose of a recount is to list and describe past experiences by retelling events in order in which they happened (chronological order).
There are three types of recount (Wing Jan, 1991:36)
1). Personal Recount. These usually retell an event that the writer was personally involved in.
2). Factual Recount. This type refers to recording an incident.
3). Imaginative Recount. Writing an imaginary role and giving details of events.
Recount text is written in the past tense. Frequent use in made of words, which link events in time. Such as next: later, when, then, after, before, first, at the same time, etc. Text recount describe events, so plenty of use in made of verbs (action words) and of adverb (which describe or add more detail to verbs) detail are often chosen to add interest of hum our. The recount, Use of personal pronouns (I, we) and the passive voice may be used. Structure of text recount is :( a) the recount text has a title, Which usually summarizes the text, (b) specific participants, (c) the basic recount consist of three part, (d) details are selected to help the reader reconstruct the activity or incident (factual recount), (e) detail of time, place and incident need to be clearly stated, (f) descriptive details may also be required to provide information (g) includes personal thought/reactions (imaginative recount).
The Teaching of Writing for SMP Students According to English Syllabus of School Unit Level Curriculum (KTSP), the teaching of writing for SMA students involves the teaching of paragraphs or text. The texts advocated are: recount, narrative, descriptive, procedure and report. Recount text is a kind of text that is usually found or presented in journals, diary, personal letter, biography, travel report, police report, sport report, history, etc. The main elements of recount are orientation, list of events, and reorientation. In the orientation step the writer mentions people and things that are involved, time of the event, the place, and the situation. In the list of events, the writer tells the events happen chronologically. In the reorientation, the writer concludes the story by giving comments. Narrative text is a kind of text that tells a story. It is developed in some steps: orientation, complication, resolution, evaluation, and reorientation. In the step of orientation, the writer tells the characters in the story, their names and the place they live, their ages, their condition, and their willing. In the complication step, the writer presents the unexpected event that happens to the characters. In the resolution step, the writer tells how the complication is solved. In the evaluation step, the writer invites the reader to think what meaning or values that are taken from the story. In the reorientation step, the writer concludes the story by giving comments. Descriptive text is a kind of text to describe something, people, or objects. Procedure text is a kind of text that tells a procedure of making something. Meanwhile, report text is a kind of text to report an event, things in the world, animals, and flora. In this study, the focus is only to recount text, since this kind of text becomes problems for the students and it needs to be solved immediately. The strategy applied to improve the students ability in writing recount text is pyramid planning strategy.
2.3. The Terms of Recount Text
There are some kind of texts (genre) in English teaching, for example, expository, discussion, explanation, recount, narrative, and anecdote. The based competency which dealt with the mastering of this type of text is the students should be able to run communication both orally or written.Recount is a text that has social function to retell events for the purpose of informing or entertaining. When you tell about happenings in the past it means that you make a recount text. Below are the generic/ schematic structures of a recount text:
a. Orientation (provides the setting and introduces participants)
b. Events (tell what happened in what sequence)
c. Re-orientation (optional- closure of events)
In the means of orientation recount text giving the reader/ listener the background information needed to understand the text (who was involved, where it happened). Then the recount unfolds with an events ordered in a chronology cal sequence.While the language features of recount text consist of underline the participants in the text, circle the material process in the text, and write down all the verbs written in past tense.
In standard competency in English (Depdiknas, 2003: 78) there are the significance lexicogrammatical features of recount text:
a. Focus on specific participants
b. Uses of material processes
c. Circumstances of time and place
d. Use of past tense
e. Focus on temporal sequence
Recount text refers to the text that tells a story that has happened in the past. It can be in the form of personal letters, diary, history, biography or autobiography and the similar (2004: 34) (Depdiknas, 2004: 26). Derewianka in Depdiknas (2004: 34) listed out three major types of recount text:
1. Personal recount
Personal recount describes an event where the writer or the author is doing the action by himself. It includes in the story, funny events which is written on the diary.
The characteristic of personal recount is that the use the first person’s pronouns, personal response to the events can be included (usually at the end of the text).
2. Factual recount
Factual recount describes the facts of events, such research report, reports on the magazines, and so forth. There are some characteristics of factual recount:
a. It uses the third pronouns
b. Its details are usually selected to help the reader to reconstruct the activity or incident accurately
c. Mention of personal feeling is probably not appropriate
d. Sometime the ending describes the outcome of the activity
e. Details of time, place and manner may need to be precisely stated
f. It may be appropriate to include explanation and justifications
3. Imaginative recount
Imaginative recount describes the story or fiction, for example, the texts for teaching language. The imaginative recount usually, written in the first person, and need not to include personal reactions.
3.1 Research Design
Subjana and Ibrahim (2001:195) state that the analysis content using frequency measure symbol or attribute, or using numeral (numeric) in order that contains more precise purpose better than using word: more less, more less, lessees, increase, etc. Based on the above statement, the method used in this research is a quantitative method. Data obtained from descriptive research is generally analyzed statistically which refers to a set of procedures that used to describe different aspect of data.
3.2 Population and Sample of the Study
Nawawchi (1998) explains that: “population is all of research object such as human, animals, plants, indications, test grade or incidents as source of data which it have certain characteristic in research.The population of this study is the second year students at MTS NW Mataram in academic year 2012/2013. The number of population of this study is 35 students.
According to Arikunto (2002:28), if the subject is less than 100, it is better to take the entire subject. Furthermore, if the subject is great in number, it can be take between 10-15% or 20-25% or more. In this research the writer, take 100% from the class. So the sample of this study comprises of 35 students.
3.3. Research Instrument
In this study, the writer used a test as the instrument in collecting data. An instrument is important to find out result of the research, so the instruments must be prepared well. In this study, there are two tests, pre-test and post-test in the pre-test, the students are asked to make a recount text. In addition, in the post-test the students will be asked to make a recount text based on the experience.
3.4. Data collection procedure
In collecting, the researcher uses some steps as follows:
a. The researcher gives a test to the students to answer it.
b. The researcher asks the students to write good recount text a topic which can be selected in the test.
c. Before doing the test, the researcher explains to the students how to answer and to write writing text.
d. They are asked to finish the test toward group discussion
e. They are asked to write the paragraph by using their own words.
f. Before doing the test,the researcher explains to the students how to answer and to write writingtext.
g. They are asked to write the paragraph by using their own words.
3.5. Method of data Collection
The result of the students writing based on the scoring on the scoring system issued by Heaton (1975:137)
Fluency and relevance
Note: Grammar refers to the sentence structures used in the writing satisfies.
Vocabulary refers to the lexical items appearing in them; Mechanic refers to the ability to write or use correctly those conventions peculiar to the written language like punctuation and appealing; fluency refers to the style and easy of communication and relevancy refer to the fact that the task demanded of the students.To score the students writing scripts the writer uses subjective scoring, which is done analytically based on the following consideration (Carrol, et al, 1985).
1. If the writing script uses complete and perfect grammar
2. If it contains random mistakes in using verb be form nouns, adverbs, nd adjectives.
3. If it contains mistakes in using verbs.
4. If it reflects Indonesia structure but still understandable
5. If it meaningless
To scope the vocabulary based on the members of word used the score will be:
1. If more than 50 different words
2. If 40 – 49 different words
3. If 30 – 39 different words
4. If 20 – 29 different words
5. If less than 20 different words
c. The scoring on mechanic based on the students ability to use that convention peculiar to the written language like punctuation and spelling.
The score will be:
1. If the writing is fluency and relevance enough to the topic
2. If there is slight shift of topic between sentences but does not disturb cohesion
3. If there is a lack of cohesion
4. If there are some random mistakes in sentences order
5. If the writing script is poor of unity
3.6. Technique of Data Analysis
After gathering the data, the research continued to the next step of analyzing the data. In data analysis, the writer used descriptive method. It means that after identifying each of the students writing. The research described the samples that have excellent, good, fairly good and terrible. Later, the result of this study leads the research to take conclusion.
1. Regarding the score and for the sake of data analysis, four main elements for writing skill are scored, namely, grammar, vocabulary, and mechanic and the last is fluency and relevance. The writer herself under the guidance of her first and second consultant scores them. Moreover to identify the individual sample writing raw score, the writer uses the following formula:
X= X1 + X2 + X3 + X4
X1 = Grammar
X2 = Vocabulary
X3 = Mechanics
X4 = Fluency and Relevant.
2. Compare the result of the mean score of the students ability in writing simple paragraph with the guidelines as issued by Heaton (1989:137).
3. Calculating the students score percentages:
P = x/n
P = proportion of sample
x = Number of students that includes in certain category
n = Number of sample
To analyze the data obtained, the writer used a descriptive method of analysis. To analyze the result of the test, the following steps would be wisely applied
a. Identifying the samples scores.
b. Inserting the students score into data table
c. Identifying the students’ individual deviation (d) of sample score.
The data from test result namely the students individual score analyzed statistically following the procedures below. First, find out the mean score of each treatment by using the formula:
Md= Ʃ d
Md = Mean score of deviation of pre-test and post-test
Ʃd = Sum of gain pre-test and post-test
N = the number of subjective.
The mean score obtained through the above formula are analyze and interpreted. Finally to computation of correlation coefficient of the two mean score is significant or not. For the sake of the computation applies the formula by Arikunto (2006:306):
Md = Mean score of deviation of pre-test and post-test
Xd = Deviation each sample
ƩX2d = Sum of deviation quadrate
N = thenumber of subject